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Explosion

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An explosion of a block of primed TNT

An explosion is a physical event in a Minecraft world which will destroy most types of blocks, as well as damage any Mobs or Players who happen to be within the blast radius. In addition to dealing damage, an explosion can also propel nearby entities away from the blast and start one or more fires in the vicinity. Explosions also produce shockwave particles.[1]

Causes

Explosions can be caused by any of the following things:

Properties

  • Position. A TNT explosion happens at the center of a primed TNT, which is a 0.98 × 0.98 × 0.98 cube. A bed explosion happens at the center of the bed block (not destroyed before the explosion).
  • Ability to generate fire. Fireballs and bed explosions are prone to starting fires.

Effects

Model of block destruction

An explosion can destroy nearby blocks. Its effect is evaluated independently on many explosion rays originating from the explosion center.

  • Each ray has an initial blast force randomized in [0.7 × power, 1.3 × power].
  • The effect of the blast force is examined at checkpoints on the ray with step length of 0.3.
  • The blast force is absorbed (block resistance / 5 + 0.3) × step length by the non-air block (no matter whether destroyed) at the each checkpoint, and attenuated by step length × 0.75 between checkpoints, until completely absorbed or attenuated.
  • A block is considered destroyed if it can't completely absorb the blast force at any checkpoint in it (air blocks can be destroyed too).

From the above process, the following results can be deduced:

  • The blast radius in the air of an explosion (i.e. only attenuated, not absorbed by blocks) = ⌊1.3 × power / (step length × 0.75)⌋ × step length = 12.1 (summoning wither) 10.2 (charged creepers, Ender Crystal), 8.6 (bed Nether/End), 6.9 (TNT), 5.2 (creepers), 1.5 (fireballs, wither skull). For example, a TNT explosion can destroy a torch 7 blocks away. But how many blocks an explosion can destroy is non-deterministic and also dependent on the specific location of the explosion.
  • The minimum block resistance required to absorb maximum blast force of an explosion happening in nearby air = ((1.3 × power - attenuation steps × step length × 0.75) / step length - 0.3) × 5. To not be destroyed, a block has to absorb all blast force at the first checkpoint in it.
    • The attenuation steps are subject to collision restrictions. For explosion in air, there is at least one attenuation step. TNT and creeper explosions are always 0.49 and 0.5 meter away from nearest block (2 att. steps), but fireball explosions can happen anywhere (1 att. step).
    • Thus, the block resistances are = 142.67 (summoning wither), 121.00 (charged creepers, ender crystal), 99.33 (bed Nether/End), 77.67 (TNT), 56.00 (creepers), 16.42 (fireballs, wither skull (except the blue one).
    • So water, stationary lava, obsidian, and bedrock are always indestructible, and fences and less resistant blocks can be destroyed by fireballs. These are theoretical values, and in reality less resistant blocks are not always destroyed.

Note that the effect of multiple explosions, no matter how simultaneous, on one block is evaluated independently and serially per explosion, and blocks don't have "temporary health" and such properties across explosion history. That means explosions have no cumulative effect on blocks.

Destroyed blocks have 30% chance of being dropped as items later.

Interaction with entities

An explosion has different effects on entities than blocks. Entities are damaged and propelled by an explosion if within its damage radius of 2 × power. Note that the "damage radius" is different from the blast radius of explosion effect on blocks.

  • For each entity within the radius, define impact = (1 - distance from the explosion / radius) × exposure.
  • Apply (impact2 + impact) × 8 × power + 1 point (half-heart, so we don't have to divide by 2 everywhere) of damage to the entity.
  • Propel the entity so that its velocity increases by impact in the direction from explosion to the entity.

From the above process, the following results can be deduced:

  • Entities will always get at least 1 point of damage if they are within the radius, regardless of their explosion exposure.
  • The maximum damage that entities can take (at the explosion center with 100% exposure) = (1 × 1 + 1) × 8 × power + 1 point of damage = 113 (56.5) (summoning wither), 97 (48.5) (charged creeper, ender crystal), 81 (40.5) (bed Nether/End), 65 (32.5) (TNT), 49 (24.5) (creepers), 17 (8.5) (fireballs, wither skull). When entities are away or covered by blocks from the explosion center, they take less damage.
  • The maximum velocity gain that an entity can obtain from a TNT explosion is 1, at the explosion center with 100% exposure.

Different damage effects will ensue. For example, existing items will be destroyed, and the armor on the player will absorb part of the damage. Items dropped in the process of, or actually after, the explosion are not affected because they have no interaction between the explosion.

The propulsion effect is often used for TNT cannons.

Calculation of explosion exposure

Explosion exposure is simply how much an entity is visible from the explosion center, and is approximated with the ratio of visible sample points on the entity. The approximation algorithm has sampling error that results in directional asymmetry of propulsion. For example, a typical TNT cannon has maximum range in the west direction partly because the primed TNT has largest sampled exposure in that direction.

Causing fire

If the explosion has the ability, it randomly starts fires in 1/3 of all destroyed air blocks that are above opaque blocks. This is bugged and doesn't occur in versions Beta 1.6 - Beta 1.8.

Blast Resistance

Block Name Blast Resistance
Bedrock 18,000,000
Enchantment Table 6,000
Obsidian 6,000
Lava 500
Water 500
End Stone 45
Brick (Block) 30
Stone Brick 30
Cobblestone 30
Diamond (Block) 30
Gold (Block) 30
Iron (Block) 30
Jukebox 30
Moss Stone 30
Nether Brick 30
Nether Brick Stairs 30
Nether Brick Fence 30
Stone Stairs 30
Slabs 30
Stone 30
Iron Bars 30
Iron Door 25
Monster Spawner 25
Dispenser 17.5
Furnace 17.5
Coal Ore 15
Diamond Ore 15
Wooden Door 15
Fence 15
Gold Ore 15
Iron (Ore) 15
Lapis Lazuli (Block) 15
Block Name Blast Resistance
Lapis Lazuli (Ore) 15
Redstone (Ore) 15
Wooden Stairs 15
Wooden Plank 15
Chest 12.5
Crafting Table 12.5
Wood 10
Bookshelf 7.5
Jack-O-Lantern 5
Melon (Block) 5
Pumpkin 5
Sign 5
Note Block 4
Sandstone 4
Wool 4
Rails 3.5
Clay (Block) 3
Farmland 3
Grass ?
Gravel 3
Cake 2.5
Sponge 3
Dirt 2.5
Ice 2.5
Lever 2.5
Mycelium 2.5
Pressure Plates 2.5
Block Name Blast Resistance
Sand 2.5
Soul Sand 2.5
Stone Button 2.5
Cactus 2
Ladders 2
Netherrack 2
Glass 1.5
Glowstone (Block) 1.5
Bed 1
Leaves 1
Snow (Block) 1
Snow 0.5
Seeds (Item) 0
Flowers 0
Fire 0
Mushrooms 0
Portal 0
Redstone (Wire) 0
Redstone (Torch) 0
Redstone (Repeater) 0
Sugar Cane 0
Sapling 0
TNT 0
Torch 0
Flowing Lava 0
Flowing Water 500
Air 0


Typical damage radii

The player will get certain damage if within these radii of a 100% exposure ground 1-, 2-, or 4-TNT explosion, as shown in the following figures with the amount of damage shown on each circle.

Trivia

  • An explosion powerful enough to break bedrock would have a blast radius of over 30,000,000 blocks, enough to destroy the entire world in 1.8. An uninterrupted blast would cover 238,775,501.2 blocks.
  • Prior to beta 1.8, explosions produced smoke particles.
  • Explosions can lift a player into the air high enough to cause fall damage.

References

  1. http://www.twitvid.com/RQ2RZ

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